All about flat feet: transverse and longitudinal, how to treat and prevent
Flatfoot is a change in the shape of the foot of the foot when its longitudinal or transverse arch is lowered. Most often, girls and women are affected. This causes significant inconvenience, and in some cases leads to complications. In this article, you will learn how to prevent this outcome and improve your quality of life. You will also find tips on preventing flat feet. They are especially relevant for women who like to walk in high heels. They are useful to mothers to prevent the development of flat feet in a child. Of course, flat feet can be congenital, but it is rare – 3% of cases. To determine it, most often succeeds after 6 years. The fact is that in young children, the foot is flat. Therefore, talking about the presence of a problem is quite difficult at an early age.
In addition to congenital flat feet, there are several other reasons that lead to a change in the foot.
Static flat feet – the most common cause of the disease, occurs in 82.1% of cases. Flatfoot appears due to weak muscles of the lower leg and foot, as well as the ligamentous apparatus and bones. This is often caused by a sharp increase in weight, or overweight, obesity. Also, this leads to frequent standing up, or sedentary work, a passive lifestyle.
Injuries, such as a fracture of the ankle, calcaneus or tarsal bones.
Paralytic (as a result of paralysis of the muscles of the foot and lower leg). Most often, it is a consequence of polio.
Rickety – as a result of the impact of weight on the weakened bones of the foot.
This is not a myth! Incorrect shoes really lead to flat feet. It includes not only studs, but also sneakers, ballet flats, which have an absolutely flat sole. Also, the list includes too narrow shoes, uncomfortable to wear, or with a soft sole that quickly deforms, for example, uggs.
Experts recommend not wearing stilettos and high heels for more than 4 hours a day. It is also not advisable to wear them daily. In ordinary shoes, a person’s weight load is mainly on the heel. In heels, her weight is directed to the area of the transverse arch, which is unnatural for our physiology. The transverse arch cannot withstand and is deformed.
Degrees and types of flat feet
There are 3 degrees of flat feet. You can suspect the deformation of the foot in yourself or the child during a visual examination. You can verify the presence or absence of a diagnosis with an orthopedist. A specialist examines the patient’s feet, if there is really a chance of flat feet, then they do an x-ray in two projections: directly and sideways. In this case, a person should stand on one leg. Also, the orthopedist takes into account many other nuances, up to the features of shoe wear.
To determine “by eye” what degree of flat feet in the patient is impossible. You can get this information after studying x-rays.
degree of flat-footed angle between the I-II metatarsals
1 10-12 ° 15-20 °
2 15 ° 30 °
3 20 ° 40 °
Transverse flat feet
The peculiarity of the transverse flatfoot is that it is this particular arch of the foot that becomes flat. In this case, the foot length becomes smaller. Deformation of the middle toe is observed. Most often, this deformation is observed between the ages of 16 and 25.
Young men can be drafted into the army, and also allowed to enter military schools / schools, with diagnoses of longitudinal flatfoot of 1 or 2 degrees. This includes transverse flatfoot of the 1st degree without complications.
Longitudinal flat feet
The difference between longitudinal flat foot and transverse is that the foot length, on the contrary, increases. If you try to make a footprint on the paper, then it is almost completely in contact with the paper. Longitudinal flatfoot is often diagnosed at the age of 35 to 50 years. Signs that signal a problem are pain in the feet, a change in the shape of the foot, or gait.
Complications of flat feet
If you suspect that you or a child has flat feet, then consult a specialist. The diagnosis can lead to complications that are not dangerous, but affect the quality of life.
Discomfort, and then pain in the feet, knees, hips. Also, pain can be felt in the back.
The gait changes, it becomes “heavy” or “galloping.” The latter can be determined by looking from the side to the going. His crown of the head will rise significantly up, and fall down spasmodically.
Depending on the type and degree of flat feet, clubfoot appears.
The foot is deformed, in addition to the flat sole, the fingers may bend or become disproportionate in length. The foot may become wider. In some cases, a “bone” comes out on the thumb, from the inside of the foot.
Change in posture.
It’s easier for a person to bend than to squat. If you still manage to sit down, then it is difficult for him to maintain balance.
People with flat feet are at risk for developing an ingrown nail.