What is the size of Mantoux: the norm in children
Many readers are interested in what size Mantoux is the norm in children? To answer this question, we offer a comprehensive study. What you need to do Mantoux Mantoux reaction…

Continue reading →

Bronchitis: symptoms in adults and children. How to treat bronchitis
Symptoms of bronchitis in children and adults do not differ. A disease of the respiratory system has the same symptoms, but the intensity of the manifestation may vary. In children…

Continue reading →

Problems with the stool of the newborn. How does the baby’s intestines function?
Newborn stool is the most talked about topic among young parents. If it is not difficult for us to understand our “deeds”, then with children everything is different. Moms look…

Continue reading →

Pregravid preparation: what tests should be taken when planning a pregnancy?

Before planning a pregnancy, it is important for a woman and her partner to undergo a series of tests included in pregravid preparation. Diagnosis and timely treatment directly affect the chances of conceiving a child, bearing without complications, as well as the health of the unborn baby. What analyzes are included in the complex of pregravid preparation and what should future parents dream of replenishment know?

What is pregravid preparation?

Pregravid preparation is a set of examinations that both partners are recommended to pass at the stage of pregnancy planning. Both partners equally transmit the genetic material to the future embryo. This means that both parents are responsible for the health of the baby and must responsibly approach the preparation for the gestational period.

The main objective of the study is to identify existing health problems that can adversely affect conception, pregnancy and the health of the child. It helps the couple enter the gestational period in the most favorable state of health and in full psychological readiness. Typically, this preparation is carried out at least 3 months before the proposed conception.

How is the study going?
First of all, a reproductologist collects a family history of the couple, conducts an examination and physical examination. The latter should not be scared – this is a routine personal examination by a doctor by palpation and other non-laboratory research methods. It includes examinations of blood circulation, urinary system, respiration, digestion, musculoskeletal system and mammary glands.

Also, pre-laboratory studies include:

blood pressure measurement;
anthropometry – measurement of physical indicators (height, weight, volume);
calculating body mass index;
gynecological examination with the help of mirrors;
taking smears.
List of gynecological tests for planning pregnancy
Keep a list of the necessary tests for planning pregnancy – pregravid preparation, approved by the clinical protocol for specialists in the field of reproductive medicine. It indicates the necessary tests for both the future mother and dad. Below you will be able to see a detailed description of each analysis and tips for preparing to go through them.
A woman needs to pass a gynecological smear, for:

assessment of the nature of the vaginal discharge;
determining its pH;
microscopy to determine fungi of the genus Candida;
Then, a qualitative study of the vaginal discharge by PCR is performed to detect sexually transmitted infections, such as:

Chlamydia (Chlamydia trachomatis);
Gonorrhea (Neisseria gonorrhoeae);
Trichomoniasis (Trichomonas vaginalis);
Mycoplasmosis (Mycoplasma genitalium).
A cytological study to exclude cervical pathology is carried out by taking a smear on atypical cells in two areas:

cervical canal.
In some cases, this analysis can simultaneously determine the presence of HPV with a high cancer risk, especially in women older than 30 years.

Laboratory tests of blood and urine

General urine analysis.
General blood test with leukocyte formula.
Preparing for blood sampling for analysis is easy. It is enough to come to the procedure 6 hours after eating or on an empty stomach. Before donating blood, physical and emotional stress should be avoided.

Determination of blood type and Rh factor.
If a woman has a negative Rhesus factor, and the father of the child is Rh-positive, you will have to pass a number of additional tests already during pregnancy.

Determination of serum antibodies to pale treponema, HIV, as well as the detection of HB s Ag, HCVAg, antibodies to measles, rubella, chickenpox viruses.
If a woman has a certificate indicating rubella vaccination with the date and number of vaccination, then analysis is not required.

Analysis to determine the level of iron.
If a woman is at risk for iron deficiency, then the levels of serum iron, ferritin, transferrin, transferrin saturation with iron should be determined.

Determination of glucose level in venous blood plasma.
The norm of blood sugar from a vein is 5.1 mmol / L. Analysis should be done in the morning on an empty stomach.

Determination of TSH concentration and free T4.
During pregnancy planning, TSH should not exceed 2.5 µIU / ml.

Determination of vitamin D.
The norm is 75-150 nmol / l or 30-60 ng / ml. Vitamin D deficiency is very common these days. It can negatively affect the course and outcome of gestation. It can also affect the health of the unborn child.

Determination of antibodies to measles and chickenpox viruses.
If a woman has a certificate indicating rubella vaccination with the date and number of vaccination, then analysis is not required.

The concentration in the blood of homocysteine.
The norm is up to 10 μmol / l. Excess indicates abnormalities that can cause fetal malformations and pregnancy complications.

Ultrasound diagnostics
Transvaginal ultrasound of the pelvic organs.
It must be passed on the 5-7 and 19-21 days of the menstrual cycle.

A child grinds his teeth in a dream: reasons. Creaks in the afternoon
There are various reasons why a child grinds his teeth in his sleep. There are similar incidents in the afternoon, when the child is awake. What does this behavior mean?…


Elevated blood monocytes in a child
Monocytes are the largest of all white blood cells and play an important role in protecting the child's body from germs and inflammation. The level of these cells in the…


Swelling of the legs during pregnancy: causes, and what to do
Edema of the legs during pregnancy is encountered by expectant mothers quite often. For some, the problem appears already in the third trimester, while for others it is somewhat earlier.…


Urticaria in a child: treatment, causes and symptoms
Urticaria in a child - sudden red itchy rashes on the body that require treatment. It can manifest itself as an allergic reaction to any irritant that is not always…